Health benefits of seaweed has been known for thousands of years include Mayan, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Irish, Welsh, Scot societies for general health and wellbeing. Evidence that seaweed reduces the restrictions and wil be at home.
Some additional food for thought: seaweed at the best with this recipe for seaweed cake – from the late Prof Isabelle Abbott who was a pioneer in seaweed from the University of Hawaii.
1 1/2 cups salad oil
2 cups sugar
2 cups grated or chopped seaweed: sea palm (Nereocystis), ogo (Gracilaria coronopifoloia), guso (Eucheuma or Kappaphycus) which is a local species from Hawaii and many tropical seas, including the Philippines. You could use a local equivalent. For this recipe, use about 1 tablespoon of dry Pacific Seamoss powder – as it swells up 15 x it is about the same as 2 cups)
2 cups grated carrots
1 cup crushed, drained pineapple (or 1 cup grated coconut, fresh)
preferably 2 1/2 cups flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1 cup chopped walnuts (optional)
Method for Seaweed Cake
Mix well the sugar and salad oil.
Add the eggs, one at a time, beating well after each egg is added.
Add the seaweed, carrots, and pineapple (or coconut).
Sift together the flour, baking soda, salt, mix well.
Add the chopped walnuts.
Bake in oblong pan or loaf pan at 350 degrees 45-50 minutes.
Serve plain or with buttercream frosting. A moist cake which keeps very well.
Marine algae expert Isabella Aiona Abbott broke barriers during her long career as a scientist, author, and university professor. She is thought to be the first Native Hawaiian person to earn a PhD in science. She was the first woman and first person of color to become a full Professor of Biology at Stanford University. After teaching at Stanford from 1960–1982, she retired and pursued a second career as professor of botany at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Abbott established the University’s undergraduate major in Ethnobotany.
Sleep is a complex process, but we have many customers who say they sleep better with Seaweed. What? Why? So we dug back through our customer referrals and data from our trials and it turns out there may improvement in sleep. Sleep is not just duration – importantly the patterns of sleep determine how you feel about sleep.
What Customers Say
My new neighbour is an 72 year old engineer with dodgy knees. After a month he says his knees “might” be better, but he has been sleeping better. Not waking at 3am. And that’s enough for him to keep going for another couple of months.
We saw a 50% improvement score in our dysmenorrhea trial but did not think too much about. It made sense if period pain was reduced. It was not something we had really focused on, but participants reported that after seaweed they did not loose work or social activities and it may be that they actually slept better.
A number of our testimonials say they feel better on seaweed
Does More Exercise Improve Sleep
The data shows the women in the trial had more energy, and found it easier to exercise. And there are many studies that show more exercise helps sleep patterns -just don’t do the exercise immediately prior to sleep! We don’t know if they had small incremental changes in exercise.
Seaweed is a powerful anti-inflammatory functional food. Does the improvement in inflammation help sleep?
We know from seaweed studies that it builds better brain pathways for people with dementia and may have some action with diseases such as Parkinsons? Do the improvement neural pathways led to better sleep.
Sleep Better with Seaweed – The Role of Vitamins and Minerals
A number of vitamins and minerals help sleep – and check out our vitamins (here) and minerals (here) of things we know help sleep.
Iron. Iron is a major component in our blood that provides oxygen to our cells and tissues. Seaweed is a good source of naturally available Fe.
Magnesium. Magnesium is a mineral that works wonders when it comes to releasing tension and helping you and your muscles to relax. Pacific Seamoss has some.
Vitamin D Other kelps and brown seaweeds have Vitamin D but Pacific Seamoss does not.
Melatonin, but melatonin is not in seaweed.
Tryptophan – in reasonable amounts – helps sleep
B vitamins. Seaweed is chock full of B3.
Calcium. There is not much Ca in Seaweed.
Vitamin E. Our Pacific
Potassium. K helps smooth muscle relax. Over 95% of westerners are deficient in K.
In a novel study published in March 2021, a team of Chinese researchers looked at 32,000 men and women and showed that seaweed reduces gout (hyperuricemia or HUA) in men. The association was not shown for women.
What is Gout?
Gout is a common and complex form of arthritis that can affect anyone. It’s characterized by sudden, severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness and tenderness in one or more joints, most often in the big toe.
An attack of gout can occur suddenly, often waking you up in the middle of the night with the sensation that your big toe is on fire. The affected joint is hot, swollen and so tender that even the weight of the bedsheet on it may seem intolerable.
Gout symptoms may come and go, but there are ways to manage symptoms and prevent flares. One of the markers looked at are levels of uric acid, as uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Increased production or reduced excretion of serum uric acid level causes hyperuricemia (HUA) and gout . Gout is related to age and BMI and there are many societal behaviours that appear to change incidence and severity of gout.
For the past 30 years, it is known that most patients with HUA are asymptomatic and do not receive treatment. As Zang and the team point out, HUA is the causative agent of gout , and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events [4, 5], hypertension , diabetes , cancer  and renal disease , and independently predicts myocardial infarction and premature death .
A study of 32,365 adults in Tianjin in China, published in Mar 2021  looked at the food that the men and women ate, the frequency of seaweed eaten and the correlation with hyperuricemia.
Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid levels ≥7.0mg/dL in men and ≥6mg/dL in women.
The prevalence of HUA was 21% in men and 6% in women. Men had higher BMI, more likely to be smokers and drinkers, had elevated cholesterol markers, ate more sweet food and more meat. Compared with females, males were more highly educated, were more likely to be managers, had a higher income, and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes
What they found was for men that the more seaweed eaten, the lower the uric acid levels.
Eat more seaweed – it will help reduce gout.
Zhang, T., Wang, Y., Gu, Y., Meng, G., Zhang, Q., Liu, L., Wu, H., Zhang, S., Wang, X., Sun, S., Wang, X., Zhou, M., Jiao, H., Jia, Q., Song, K., Wu, Y., Wu, X. H., & Niu, K. (2021). Title: Relationship between seaweeds consumption and hyperuricemia in general adults: A Population-based Study from the TCLSIH Cohort Study. The British journal of nutrition, 1–31. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521000891
Garrel DR, Verdy M, PetitClerc C, Martin C, Brule D, Hamet P. Milk- and soy-protein ingestion: acute effect on serum uric acid concentration. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(3):665-9. Epub 1991/03/01. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/53.3.665. PubMed PM ID: 2000819
Choi HK, Mount DB, Reginato AM, American College of P, American Physiological S. Pathogenesis of gout. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(7):499-516. Epub 2005/10/06. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-143-7-200510040-00009. PubMed PMID: 16204163.
Hoieggen A, Alderman MH, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Devereux RB, De Faire U, et al. The impact of serum uric acid on cardiovascular outcomes in the LIFE study. Kidney international. 2004;65(3):1041-9. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00484.x. PubMed PMID: 14871425.
Holme I, Aastveit AH, Hammar N, Jungner I, Walldius G. Uric acid and risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and congestive heart failure in 417,734 men and women in the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk study (AMORIS). Journal of internal medicine. 2009;266(6):558-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2009.02133.x. PubMed PMID: 19563390.
Sundstrom J, Sullivan L, D’Agostino RB, Levy D, Kannel WB, Vasan RS. Relations of serum uric acid to longitudinal blood pressure tracking and hypertension incidence. Hypertension. 2005;45(1):28-33. doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.0000150784.92944.9a. PubMed PMID: 15569852.
Bhole V, Choi JW, Kim SW, de Vera M, Choi H. Serum uric acid levels and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. Am J Med. 2010;123(10):957-61.
Strasak AM, Rapp K, Hilbe W, Oberaigner W, Ruttmann E, Concin H, et al. Serum uric acid and risk of cancer mortality in a large prospective male cohort. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2007;18(9):1021-9. doi: 10.1007/s10552-007-9043-3. PubMed PMID: 17665312.
Obermayr RP, Temml C, Gutjahr G, Knechtelsdorfer M, Oberbauer R, Klauser-Braun R. Elevated uric acid increases the risk for kidney disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2008;19(12):2407-13. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2008010080. PubMed PMID: 18799720; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2588108.
Fang J, Alderman MH. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Jama. 2000;283(18):2404-10. doi: 10.1001/jama.283.18.2404. PubMed PMID: 10815083.
Uaratanawong S, Suraamornkul S, Angkeaw S, Uaratanawong R. Prevalence of hyperuricemia in Bangkok population. Clinical rheumatology. 2011;30(7):887-93. doi: 10.1007/s10067-011-1699-0. PubMed PMID: 21302126
Most cold medicines only treat the symptoms; however, seaweed nasal spray attacks a cold at its source and is clinically proven to shorten the duration of a cold and help reduce the severity of cold symptoms. The are formulated to be preservative & steroid free, and can used during pregnancy, breastfeeding and kids from 12 months.
These solutions often have the natural ingredient iota-carragenan sourced from red seaweeds such as Eucheuma cottonii . Some may use the carrageenan Kappaphycus alvarezii . The carrageenan forms a barrier in the nasal passage that traps cold viruses, helping to reduce their multiplication and spread, allowing your body’s natural defences to sweep the viruses away from the nasal lining.
Seaweed Nasal Spray is in Multiple Products
These come in from a range of providers.
The Austrian company from Vienna Marinomed AG has produced a carrageenan product used by various called Carrogelose and that product is sold for colds and flus.
Mundicare® Cold Defence Nasal Spray from Mundipharma and they also sell a range of other natural products including melaleuca.
Sinomarin Plus Algae from Sinomarin from Greece, which uses the brown seaweed fucoidan extract Undaria pinnatifida and Spirulina plantensis/ Their product is for rhinitis, allergies and colds and flus.
Marinome published work in 2021 showing efficacy on SARS-COVID-2 with trials in Argentina. See this preliminary press release and the report from the Argentina hospital here
Is Whole Seaweed Effective?
For over 50 years, seaweed has been known to be effective as an antiviral compound and even tested against remdesivir in 2021. But the introduction and widespread sale of commercial products is a welcoming sign.
Marinome say a particular advantage of their carrageenan type product is the broad activity of the polymer against different virus strains, such as rhinovirus and colds and flus. They also show activity against coronaviruses. In clinical trials with more than 600 patients suffering from early symptoms of the common cold they show great improvement. Products containing their extracts, such as nasal sprays, lozenges or a throat spray have been marketed in Austria since 2008 and now have been established as the first causative treatment of common cold and flu-like diseases worldwide and are distributed in more than 40 countries.
Biosea Health suspects that the consumption of seaweed as a daily food will be effective in reducing the impact of viruses. That it reduces disease load in pigs and chickens in meat broiler and egg production is demonstrated. Research is needed to confirm.
The question is can you stop Arthritis with seaweed. We have many customers who report their symptoms have reduced and that seaweed is very effective. This may be due to the type of arthritis, and the amount of Pacific Seamoss seaweed that customers are consuming.
Is seaweed good for Arthritis
Seaweded is packed full of a large number of nutrients and vitamins which probably reduce the symptoms of arthritis. Nutrients such as potassium (K) are in high quantities and improve smooth muscle
Does seaweed work for All Types of arthritis
Arthritis is over 100 different types, and a large number of causes with not enough research done on the type of arthritis and the beneficial effects of seaweed.
Is Seaweed inflammatory
Seaweed is highly anti-inflammatory. In an animal experiment in 2017 and 2020, Brown looked at various markers such as hypertension, heart inflammation, gut inflammation, fatty liver inflammation and gut microbiota and glucose intolerance and seaweed reduced the the markers. Along with blood serum markers, the histological evidence was conclusive.
Effectiveness of Whole Seaweed versus Seaweed Extracts
The seaweed extract nutrient complex when taken orally over twelve weeks decreased the symptoms of osteoarthritis in a dose-dependent manner in 2007, and 2010,
How Common is Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent cause of disability among adults in the developed world. Arthritis affects around 15% in Australia (3 million people). More than 20 million people in the United States have the disease. The lifetime risk of knee OA for males and females aged over 45 years is between 45% (nonobese) to 70% for obese. The cost in USA is more than $60 billion per year.It is second only to ischemic heart disease as a cause of work disability for men over 50 years.
Can osteoarthritis Be Cured?
The progressive deterioration of articular cartilage which occurs in OA results in pain, stiffness and difficulty with physical activities. The disease is managed rather than cured, with a focus on pain relief.
What Natural Medicines are Used?
A number of herbal medicines in clinical trials show beneficial effects in reduction of OA symptoms. These include advocado, soybean unsaponifiables, lipids from green-lipped mussels, calcified seaweed extracts, and Pycnogenol (French maritime pine bark extract). Boswellia serrata extracts have also show clinical promise as do preparations of Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s Claw). In vitro studies polyphenols such as epigallocatetchin (from green tea) and phlorotannin-rich extracts of the seaweed Ecklonia cava show potential.
Can you Stop Arthritis with Seaweed
Previous studies focused on seaweed extracts, not whole seaweed. The study by Myers was with a fucoidan extract and showed promise in Phase 1 / II trials but did not in phase 3 trials. When you look further, there is a strong dose rate up to 1g per day. Pacific Seamoss (see seaweed species here) is consumed at 2 to 5 grams per day. This consumption equivalent to a bowl of salad provides nutrients and vitamins, changes gut microbiota.
 Myers, S. P., O’Connor, J., Fitton, J. H., Brooks, L., Rolfe, M., Connellan, P., Wohlmuth, H., Cheras, P. A., & Morris, C. (2010). A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis. Biologics : targets & therapy, 4, 33–44. https://doi.org/10.2147/btt.s8354
Want a natural medicine for joint pain? One that is more effective than conventional analgesics or anti-inflammatories. In fact, medical practitioners advise against long term use of regular analgesics for joint pain. There are numerous remedies but the following 10 have proven trials. How much do you need? Most of these require a reasonable quantity consumed each day.
Joint pain, usually called arthritis (which means swollen joint) – in the back, hands, pelvis knees or ankles may be due to multiple causes. Some say that weight from obesity is the major cause – but more recently understanding is arthritis is primarily and inflammatory response. With over 104 different types of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. (Read more here) it is not surprising that studies show various levels of pain relief. Not just with artificial drugs but also natural medicines.
Seaweed extracts such as fucoidan are effective. The fucoidan comes from brown seaweed, but red seaweed is effective and there is good evidence in animals and in humans that whole seaweed is even more effective. Should you take the whole plant or just an extract? Prof Lindsay Brown says the whole plant has various other nutrients and vitamins that have other benefits so you should eat the whole plant and forget the extracts. Customers have experienced remarkable reduction of arthritis from Pacific Seamoss.
SAM-e acts as an analgesic (pain reliever) and has anti-inflammatory properties. It may stimulate cartilage growth and also affects neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, which reduce pain perception. Two studies have shown that it relieves OA symptoms as effectively as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with fewer side effects and more prolonged benefit.
Indian frankincense – Boswellia serrate
The active components (Boswellic acids) have anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain-relieving) properties. It also may help prevent cartilage loss and inhibit the autoimmune process. In a 2008 study, the extract, also known as Loxin 5, significantly improved OA pain and function within seven days. An Indian study also revealed it slowed cartilage damage after three months of use.
Capsaicin – Capsicum frutescens
Capsaicin temporarily reduces substance P, a pain transmitter. Its pain-relieving properties have been shown in many studies, including a 2010 study published in Phytotherapy Research, which revealed a 50 percent reduction in joint pain after three weeks of use. It is available as a topical cream, gel or patch
Tumeric/Curcumin –Curcuma longa
Curcumin is the chemical in turmeric that can reduce joint pain and swelling by blocking inflammatory cytokines and enzymes. A 2010 clinical trial using a turmeric supplement showed long-term improvement in pain and function in patients with knee OA. A small 2012 study using a curcumin product, BCM-95, showed more reduced joint pain and swelling in patients with active RA when compared to diclofenac sodium.
Avocado-soybean Unsaponifiables (ASU)
ASU blocks pro-inflammatory chemicals, prevents deterioration of synovial cells, which line joints, and may help regenerate normal connective tissue. A large three-year study published in 2013 showed that ASU significantly reduced progression of hip OA compared with placebo. A 2008 meta-analysis found that ASU improved symptoms of hip and knee OA, and reduced or eliminated NSAID use.
Cat’s Claw – Uncaria tomentosa
Cat’s claw is an anti-inflammatory that inhibits tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a target of powerful RA drugs. It also contains compounds that may benefit the immune system. A small 2002 trial showed it reduced joint pain and swelling by more than 50 percent compared with placebo. Look for a brand that is free of tetra-cyclic oxindole alkaloids.
Fish Oil (Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA)
Omega-3s block inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins, and are converted by the body into powerful anti-inflammatory chemicals called resolvins. EPA and DHA have been extensively studied for RA and dozens of other inflammatory conditions. A 2010 meta-analysis found that fish oil significantly decreased joint tenderness and stiffness in RA patients and reduced or eliminated NSAID use. Recent studies have shown it is little better than placebo.
Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA)
GLA is an omega-6 fatty acid that the body converts into anti-inflammatory chemicals. In one trial, 56 patients with active RA showed significant improvement in joint pain, stiffness and grip strength after six months and progressive improvement in control of disease activity at one year. A smaller study found that a combination of GLA and fish oil significantly reduced the need for conventional pain relievers.
Ginger – Zingiber officinale
Ginger has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties similar to ibuprofen and COX-2 inhibitors. In a 2012 study, a specialized ginger extract reduced inflammatory reactions in RA as effectively as steroids did. Earlier studies showed that taking a certain extract four times daily reduced osteoarthritis pain in the knee after three months of treatment, and another taken twice daily worked about as well as ibuprofen taken three times daily for hip and knee OA pain
CBD is recent addition, and data is not yet clear. Cannabinoids are thought to influence the body’s own endocannabinoid system, which regulate biological functions such as metabolism, pain sensation and nervous system functions. Animal studies show CBD reduces pain and inflammation, and it may ease anxiety and improve sleep, but human research is needed. One study found synthetic-derived CBD was effective for knee OA pain. The FDA has approved CBD-derived drugs for rare childhood epileptic conditions.
Other Natural Products
There are many other natural medicines for relief of pain, and these include pine back extract, rosehips, and green lipped mussel extracts.
 Makkar, F & Chakraborty, K 2017, Antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of sulphated polygalactans from red seaweeds Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria opuntia,International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1326-37.
 Kumar, S.A., Brown, L. Seaweeds as potential therapeutic interventions for the metabolic syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord14, 299–308 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-013-9254-8
 John O, Mouatt P, Prasadam I , Xiao Y, Panchal S, Brown L 2019 The edible native Australian fruit, Davidson’s plum (Davidsonia pruriens), reduces symptoms in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome, Journal of Functional Foods, (56) Pages 204-215, ISSN 1756-4646, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2019.03.018.
 Kumar M & Sharma S (2020) Toxicological effects of marine seaweeds: a cautious insight for human consumption, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1738334
 D’Orazio, N.; Gemello, E.; Gammone, M.A.; De Girolamo, M.; Ficoneri, C.; Riccioni, G. Fucoxantin: A Treasure from the Sea. Mar. Drugs2012, 10, 604-616.
 Tirtawijaya, G., Haque, M. N., Choi, J. S., Moon, I. S., Meinita, M. D. N., Choi, J.-S., & Hong, Y.-K. (2019). Spinogenesis and Synaptogenesis Effects of the Red Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Its Isolated Cholesterol on Hippocampal Neuron Cultures. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 24(4), 418. (PubMed)
 Wanyonyi, S., Du Preez, R., Brown, L., Paul, N. A., & Panchal, S. K. (2017). Kappaphycus alvarezii as a food supplement prevents diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Nutrients, 9(11), 1261.(Pubmed)
 du Preez, R.; Paul, N.; Mouatt, P.; Majzoub, M.E.; Thomas, T.; Panchal, S.K.; Brown, L. Carrageenans from the Red Seaweed Sarconema filiforme Attenuate Symptoms of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Mar. Drugs2020, 18, 97.
 Myers SP, O’Connor J, Fitton JH, et al. A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis. Biologics. 2010;4:33-44. Published 2010 Mar 24. doi:10.2147/btt.s8354
 Sekar, S., Shafie, S., Prasadam, I. et al. Saturated fatty acids induce development of both metabolic syndrome and osteoarthritis in rats. Sci Rep7, 46457 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep46457
Our advice is to not consume seaweed. The recommended diet for Graves Disease is to minimise iodine in your diet. While Pacific Seamoss is only about 15% RDI, that may accentuate the growth of the thyroid.
Will seaweed make Graves Autoimmune disease better or worse
The causes of autoimmune diseases are multiple and complex. Seaweed will likely to have an effect as it may change gut microbiome. Gut microbiome affects auto-immune diseases.
What is Graves Disease
It is an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid. With this disease, your immune system attacks the thyroid and causes it to make more thyroid hormone than your body needs.
Graves’ disease is named after the doctor who charactertised it. With the overactive thyroid, there can be multiple issues.
Growth and development
Graves’ Disease and Seaweed
Eating seaweed if you have Graves’ Disease has complications and is generally not recommended.
Iodine Levels. While red seaweed is only about 15% RDI (or Dietary Intake %) in comparison to kelp species that may be 2 to 20 times, most dietary recommendations are strict regarding avoidance of iodine containing foods. Seaweed is full of healthy minerals and vitamins but the level of additional iodine would tend to rule out consumption of any seaweed.
Autoimmune Disease Graves is a nasty autoimmune disease. There is poor data on specific causes of autoimmune flares, and how seaweed may or may not mitigate.
Oligomenorrhea is a range of menstrual abnormal conditions. Too much or too little thyroid hormone can make your periods very light, heavy, or irregular. Thyroid disease also can cause your periods to stop for several months or longer, a condition called amenorrhea which generally results in painful periods (dysmenorrhea).
Having Graves’ Disease with painful periods is a terrible dilemma and a “Catch 22”. While consuming seaweed may reduce dysmenorrhea, it may come with a potential increase in severity of Graves. Basically humans are a chemical soup. Sorting out interactions will be a challenge.
There are many support organisations globally – select one in your local country. Generally Graves’ disease is not classified as a disability, but for many sufferers it is life changing.
Biosea Health warns customers about seafood allergies and seaweed. The ingredients in Pacific Seamoss is listed as Kappahycus alvarezii or a red tropical seaweed in a gel capsule. In some other products it is a blend and the percentages of the seaweeds are listed. It is 100% seaweed. For the full and most recent label – check out www.bioseahealth.com/label
For food compliance we put a warning for seafood allergies and seaweed on the packet. Why? Seaweed grows in the ocean and that is a whole soup of plants and animals – as soon as we plant the seaweed we get tiny shellfish such as mussels and oysters. Seaweed is their food source of choice. Then little fish come along to feast on the shellfish and the seaweed. Likewise bigger fish and in some areas, turtles get involved as well.
With squid and other tropical fish it soon becomes an area where pelagic fish such as barracuda and even whale sharks.
When we harvest seaweed in about 45 days later there is a whole community. Our seaweed farmers remove all the things they can see. But we know there will may be small creatures that get through the inspection and subsequent washing in clean fresh water. It may be just be a microscopic shellfish that got through the process and it might be in a 1 in a thousand or even one in 10 thousand capsule.
Symptoms and Signs of Seafood Allergy
Seafood allergies can be serious. Symptoms of fish or shellfish allergies vary and range from mild reactions to a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis). The most common symptom is raised red bumps of skin (hives). Other symptoms include wheezing and trouble breathing, cramps, diarrhoea, nausea or vomiting.
Hence the warning. A bit like the warning that chocolate might be made in a factory with nuts.
Seaweed Farming Creates Sustainable Ecosystems
From a sustainable ocean practice we come up against food rules that are designed for sterile glasshouses…..
 Sicherer S, Muñoz-Furlong A, Sampson H 2004 Prevalence of seafood allergy in the United States determined by a random telephone survey, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 114, Issue 1, pp 159-165, ISSN 0091-6749, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2004.04.018.
Seaweed is full of vitamins, but analysis of vitamins has not been straightforward and many papers do not publish the levels. The amount of vitamins will depend on:
Growing conditions for the seaweed crop
Age of seaweed at harvest
Genotype or form of the seaweed
DNA or genotype of the seaweed
Conditions at harvest
Post harvest treatments
Chemical process to extract the vitamins from the seaweed as the vitamins may be tightly bound in the biological material
all lead to variation in the levels of vitamins measured.
Seaweed is full of vitamins
The data presented included:
Review of the quantity as measured by the researcher
Averaging of data where there is general agreement
RDI numbers are based on a 19 to 50 year old woman – rather than some RDI numbers that vary depending on sex and on age of the human
Vitamin Analysis for Pacific Seamoss
Vitamin / Or Other Name
Total in 2.50
Quantity per 100g
RDI (ug or mg)
Serving as % of RDI
Vitamin A (retinol + Beta Carotene)
Vitamin B1 (thiamine)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) mg
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Vitamin B7 (biotin)
Vitamin B9 (folic acid)
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
Seaweeds are a good source of vitamins. The amount of vitamins does depend on when the age of seaweed, the harvesting process, drying and heating and processing. These numbers are best estimates based on previous published papers, and are subject to change,
Customers have told us they feel better, and it is probably the Vitamin B that assist. It may be trace elements, but the combination of trace elements and vitamins may complement each other.
Cotas, João, Adriana Leandro, Diana Pacheco, Ana M. M. Gonçalves, and Leonel Pereira. 2020. ‘A Comprehensive Review of the Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Applications of Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)’. Life 10 (3): 19. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10030019.
Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. (Link Here)
Rajasulochana, P. & Krishnamoorthy, P.. (2013). An investigation on the neutraceutical aspects of the Kappaphycus alvarezii. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 5. 25-33. (Link Here)
Rajasulochana, P. & Krishnamoorthy, P. & Dhamotharan, R.. (2013). An investigation on the antioxidants, antifungal and antibacterial of the Kappaphycus alvarezii. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 4. 586-594. (Link Here)
Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001. 13, Arsenic, Boron, Nickel, Silicon, and Vanadium. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK222322/
Trace elements in seaweed and even macro nutrient analysis of seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii used in Pacific Seamoss is not published or standardized in the USDA data. This review of data from researchers confirms seaweed is very nutritious and can provide hard to get nutrients in an easy form. We publish this in a form to be used in nutrition of seaweed.
Various sources of information are conflicting as the seaweed has been grown in different areas and authors seldom measured what we know is important in seaweed nutrition including the water quality, the age of the seaweed, the phenotype, and how it treated and stored post harvest. The various authors include:
Wanyoni in 20171 with seaweed from the Yasawa Islands, Fiji
Rajasculochana 2,3 from Tamil Nadu in India in 2010 and 2013 has differing levels in different papers.
Keyimu Abdullah 2016 4 used Malaysian seaweed from Langkawi and Sabah
Seasonal variations in nutrients were identified by Kumar 5 who collected in Gujarat in NorthWest India
Abriami in 2011 reviewed nutrient and nutraceutical potential in Tamil Nadu, India 6
Lumbessy 7 focused on amino acids from West Nusa Tenggara Indonesia
There are 3 different measures for how much to eat or how much is safe.
The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is used to examine the probability that usual intake is inadequate. It is used to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes within a group. The Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) is used when usual intake at or above this level has a low probability of inadequacy. It is higher than the EAR sometimes as it is the daily intake level of a nutrient considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
Recently, the labeling regulations in the USA has changed to % Daily Value (%DV) and is the percentage of the Daily Value for each nutrient in a serving of the food. The Daily Values are reference amounts (expressed in grams, milligrams, or micrograms) of nutrients to consume or not to exceed each day.
For chemicals to be mimimised, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) used and is defined as the maximum amount of a chemical that can be ingested daily over a lifetime with no appreciable health risk, and is based on the highest intake that does not give rise to observable adverse effects.
Amino Acid Requirements
Only the essential amino acids have requirements. The numbers are from Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. National Research Council (US) Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1989. They are based on the mg per kg of weight. 9
Upper limits are set for some minerals such as nickel. 10.
Trace Elements Nutrient Levels of Pacific Sea Moss
Name of Element
RDI or %DV
Daily Serve ( % RDI)
The trace element nutrients values are from Wanyonyi et al 2017 for Kappaphycus alvarezii from Fiji Mar. Drugs 2017, 15 and other researchers over the past 15 years. There is varying nutrient levels depending on time of year, age of harvest of the seaweed. See the label for the values of major elements and vitamins.
 Wanyonyi S, du Preez R, Brown L, Paul NA, Panchal SK. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Supplementary Data. Nutrients. 2017;9(11):2. doi:10.3390/nu9111261
 Rajasulochana P, Krishnamoorthy P, Dhamotharan R. Amino acids, fatty acids and minerals in Kappaphycus sp. 2010;5(5):12.Rajasulochana P, Krishnamoorthy P. An investigation on the neutraceutical aspects of the Kappaphycus alvarezii. Int J Pharm Res. 2013;5:25-33.
 Keyimu X, Abdullah A. Determination of Element Compositions and Antioxidant Activities of Kappaphycus alvarezii Found in the Waters of Langkawi and Sabah, Malaysia. Int J ChemTech Res. Published online 2016:6.
 Kumar KS, Ganesan K, Subba Rao PV, Thakur MC. Seasonal studies on field cultivation of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty on the northwest coast of India. J Appl Phycol. 2016;28(2):1193–1205. doi:10.1007/s10811-015-0629-y
Abirami RG, Kowsalya S. Nutrient and Nutraceutical Potentials of Seaweed Biomass Ulva lactuca and Kappaphycus alvarezii. :8.
 Lumbessy SY, Andayani S, Nursyam H, Firdaus M. Biochemical study of amino acid profile of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria salicornia seaweeds from Gerupuk Waters, West Nusa Tenggara (NTB). EurAsian J Biosci. Published online 2019:5.
 Chemical Composition, Iron Bioavailability, and Antioxidant Activity of Kappaphycus alvarezzi (Doty) | Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Accessed October 26, 2020. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jf0493627
 Allowances NRC (US) S on the TE of the RD. Protein and Amino Acids. National Academies Press (US); 1989. Accessed October 26, 2020. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK234922/
 Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. :320.
 Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001. 13, Arsenic, Boron, Nickel, Silicon, and Vanadium. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK222322/