Biosea Health Pain Reduction

Seaweed Reduces Back Pain

Seaweed reduces back pain was not something we were told about when we introduced Pacific Seamoss in 2019. But then we had many customers of Pacific Seamoss come back and tell us they had reduction of back pain. They had other benefits, but reduction in pain was widely reported and in particular natural arthritis relief.

Inflammation in joints occurs for many reasons, the two most common being overuse and arthritis. Both conditions interfere with normal function and stop us from leading a healthy active life. With Pacific Seamoss our customers are reporting pain and inflammation is reduced in arthritic or injured joints. They say they are active again, and greatly appreciate the better quality of life. Even our more athletic customers tell us their niggling training injuries have disappeared.

Reasons for less back pain

A seminal Nature publication by Professors Brown and Xiao in 2019 [11] said that the rats in a functional food study was related to the reduction in inflammation rather than obesity that the experiment studied. Along with the large reduction in inflammation in liver and gut, changes in microbiome, the animals fed functional food had additional cartilage. There are many reasons that Pacific Seamoss reduce back pain.

  • Pacific Seamoss contains plant sterols and other macronutrients that interfere with the chronic inflammation process.
  • It is a pre-biotic – up-regulating your healthy gut bacteria that pump inflammation-reducing short-chain fatty acids into the bloodstream.
  • It has a high daily level of nutrients and trace elements such as potassium, Zinc, Selenium and Calcium
  • With high levels of Vitamins including A, B1, B2, and B6
  • Good levels of Sulphur

In addition in animal studies, it was more effective than aspirin as an analgesic. [9]

There are clinical trials with seaweed from the brown seaweeds and extracts of fucoidans, and show reduction in arthritis with extracts of kelp [10] but Pacific Seamoss is whole food, is available, has vitamins and minerals and consumers report outstanding results.

Seaweed reduces back pain testimonials

For some testimonials for back pain check out testimonials on this site here. Here are just 4 simple ones. It seems it takes 4 to 6 weeks before people notice, and it will be because the body gets used to pain. It takes a while to realise that pain is not there.

  • Chris – a 65 year old ex parquet flooring business owner could not stand up without hanging onto a support and with pain. After 3 months of seaweed he realised when he stood up, the creak and crack were still there, but the pain had gone.
  • Wayne, a printer realised when he stood up, knees bent, with a box of paper the pain had reduced. Took 4 weeks
  • Gray realised after a month that he woke up without knee pain. After 2 months he could do a fun run with his kids – something he had been unable to do for 10 years.
  • Lindsay had a back pain for over 15 years. Realised after 3 weeks that he had no more pain.

These customers were consuming about 4 grams of seaweed per day. Some have reduced down to 2.5 g and finding that pain relief continues. Stopping for a couple of weeks means the pain returns.

What Causes Back Pain

Causes of Back pain (from VeryWell Health) are varied, and more study will be needed to understand where seaweed may assist in the natural management of back pain.

Natural Medicines

The Arthritis Foundation says that there are 10 vitamins and supplements, backed by science, that help relieve arthritis pain. You can read more on natural medicine for joint pain here.

Knee and Back Pain Prevalence

It is just not back pain. Knee pain is the second most common chronic pain condition in the U.S. behind back pain. Over one-third of all Americans will have a knee pain issue at some point in their lives. Between 15% and 20 % of men will encounter knee pain, and almost 20% of women will have knee pain.


[1] Makkar, F & Chakraborty, K 2017, Antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potential of sulphated polygalactans from red seaweeds Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria opuntia, International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1326-37.

[2] Kumar, S.A., Brown, L. Seaweeds as potential therapeutic interventions for the metabolic syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 14, 299–308 (2013).

[3] John O, Mouatt P, Prasadam I , Xiao Y, Panchal S, Brown L 2019 The edible native Australian fruit, Davidson’s plum (Davidsonia pruriens), reduces symptoms in rats with diet-induced metabolic syndrome, Journal of Functional Foods, (56) Pages 204-215, ISSN 1756-4646,

[4] Kumar M & Sharma S (2020) Toxicological effects of marine seaweeds: a cautious insight for human consumption, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1738334

[5] D’Orazio, N.; Gemello, E.; Gammone, M.A.; De Girolamo, M.; Ficoneri, C.; Riccioni, G. Fucoxantin: A Treasure from the Sea. Mar. Drugs 201210, 604-616.

[6] Tirtawijaya, G., Haque, M. N., Choi, J. S., Moon, I. S., Meinita, M. D. N., Choi, J.-S., & Hong, Y.-K. (2019). Spinogenesis and Synaptogenesis Effects of the Red Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Its Isolated Cholesterol on Hippocampal Neuron Cultures. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 24(4), 418. (PubMed)

[7] Wanyonyi, S., Du Preez, R., Brown, L., Paul, N. A., & Panchal, S. K. (2017). Kappaphycus alvarezii as a food supplement prevents diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Nutrients, 9(11), 1261.(Pubmed)

[8] du Preez, R.; Paul, N.; Mouatt, P.; Majzoub, M.E.; Thomas, T.; Panchal, S.K.; Brown, L. Carrageenans from the Red Seaweed Sarconema filiforme Attenuate Symptoms of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Mar. Drugs 202018, 97.

[9] Zakaria, A, Jais, MR & Ishak, R 2018, Analgesic properties of Nigella sativa and Eucheuma cottonii extracts  Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 23.

[10] Myers SP, O’Connor J, Fitton JH, et al. A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis. Biologics. 2010;4:33-44. Published 2010 Mar 24. doi:10.2147/btt.s8354

[11] Sekar, S., Shafie, S., Prasadam, I. et al. Saturated fatty acids induce development of both metabolic syndrome and osteoarthritis in rats. Sci Rep 7, 46457 (2017).

Biosea Health Health Benefits Period Pain

Graves Disease and Seaweed

Can you eat seaweed if you have graves disease

Our advice is to not consume seaweed. The recommended diet for Graves Disease is to minimise iodine in your diet. While Pacific Seamoss is only about 15% RDI, that may accentuate the growth of the thyroid.

Will seaweed make Graves Autoimmune disease better or worse

The causes of autoimmune diseases are multiple and complex. Seaweed will likely to have an effect as it may change gut microbiome. Gut microbiome affects auto-immune diseases.

What is Graves Disease

It is an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid. With this disease, your immune system attacks the thyroid and causes it to make more thyroid hormone than your body needs.

Graves’ disease is named after the doctor who charactertised it. With the overactive thyroid, there can be multiple issues.

  • Growth and development
  • Body temperature
  • Heart rate
  • Weight
  • Fertility
  • Mental health
  • Sleep
Fast facts from Endocrineweb [2].

Graves’ Disease and Seaweed

Eating seaweed if you have Graves’ Disease has complications and is generally not recommended.

  • Iodine Levels. While red seaweed is only about 15% RDI (or Dietary Intake %) in comparison to kelp species that may be 2 to 20 times, most dietary recommendations are strict regarding avoidance of iodine containing foods. Seaweed is full of healthy minerals and vitamins but the level of additional iodine would tend to rule out consumption of any seaweed.
  • Autoimmune Disease Graves is a nasty autoimmune disease. There is poor data on specific causes of autoimmune flares, and how seaweed may or may not mitigate.
  • Oligomenorrhea is a range of menstrual abnormal conditions. Too much or too little thyroid hormone can make your periods very light, heavy, or irregular. Thyroid disease also can cause your periods to stop for several months or longer, a condition called amenorrhea which generally results in painful periods (dysmenorrhea).


Having Graves’ Disease with painful periods is a terrible dilemma and a “Catch 22”. While consuming seaweed may reduce dysmenorrhea, it may come with a potential increase in severity of Graves. Basically humans are a chemical soup. Sorting out interactions will be a challenge.

From Wikipedia

Support Organisations

There are many support organisations globally – select one in your local country. Generally Graves’ disease is not classified as a disability, but for many sufferers it is life changing.

Further Reading

[1] Graves’s Disease from (Google 2020-Nov)

[2] Graves’ Disease. Wikipedia

[3] Brent GA. Clinical practice. Graves’ disease. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jun 12;358(24):2594-605. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp0801880.

Biosea Health Period Pain

Seaweed Improves Fertility

Some say seaweed improves fertility? Or do the estrogen receptors in seaweed act against improved fertility? Should one consume seaweed if you are planning a family or pregnant? The short answer is there appears to be no reason not to eat seaweed as part of a balanced diet, but this ignores that various researchers have seen some responses as seaweed as a functional food. I.e. Seaweed is food. But seaweed has some properties that are drug-like; such as having preventative breast cancer properties, or dysmenorrhea reduction.

With no definitive answers, how do we answer this question from various customers, some of whom are planning a family and wondering if seaweed as a food is good or has some risks.

  • Seaweed is a nutritious vegetable with good levels of nutrients and vitamins.
  • So what about the potential for seaweed to affect menstruation, and estrogen regulation in females.
  • Is there any potential impact for males?

Evidence For or Against?


Seaweed is a functional food. It is just food.

  • If you have seafood allergies, avoid seaweed as the potential to have some seafood passengers included in seaweed.
  • Some foods are advised to be avoided during pregnancy to protect the embryo. E.g. Australian advice [1] is for pregnant women to avoid soft cheeses, pate, raw or partially cooked eggs. In other countries advice may differ on food consumed.


Seaweed has proven health benefits – both from a nutrition and functional food qualities. Here are some of the benefits identified relevant to fertility.

  • We have found no evidence in the literature that societies with high consumption of seaweed (Japan, China, Korea, Philippines, Welsh) have any reduction in fertility. Some societies consumed seaweed for millennia.
  • Epidemiological US studies show longer period cycles result in lower cancer rates and healthier offspring in females.
  • Breast cancer. Previous studies by Jane Teas suggests seaweed may change some estrogen markers and she proposed in [2] and [3] that changes from seaweed may reduce breast cancer.
  • Endometriosis studies by Skibola showed improvement in reproductive health, reduction dysmenorrhea and endometriosis [8] and in a followup study showed seaweed was a protective mechanism against phyto-estrogens. [9]
  • Seaweed is a very active anti-oxidant. It is also effective against osteoarthritis conditions. [11]
  • Seaweed changed gut microbiome in animals [4] and focus is now on the bacteria – gut – brain continuum.
  • In both animal [4] and human studies [3] patients consuming seaweed had a reduction in hypertension. Some have tried to isolate a specific compound, but have not been successful.
  • Animal studies have shown reduction in fatty liver and heart inflammation [4] [10]
  • Seaweed is nutritious – is the improved nutrition by way of a daily serve of fibre or some of the minerals and vitamins part of the issue. Good nutrition of minerals and vitamins is essential. Seaweed has good levels – some approaching 20% or more of RDI. Details are here for minerals and vitamins.
  • Feeding rabbits with 2% seaweed to doe rabbits improved their kindling rate, litter size, and their offspring ratio [6]
  • Seaweed improved spermatozoa counts in mice affected by malarial pesticides [7]. Improvements in male fertility may be important and whether levels of zinc or other nutrition may improve male fertility is unclear.
  • Pacific Seamoss reduced dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia in company pilot trials. This work will be repeated.

Seaweed Improves Fertility Summary

In summary, there is more positive than negative research findings to date. Seaweed is a traditional food in many cultures. Diet, health and wellbeing are complex in this area of fertility. Simply, people feel better on seaweed, it provides lots of good fibre, minerals, vitamins, protective against breast cancer, anti-inflammatory and limited data suggests it restores normal menstruation. And been eaten in many cultures for millennia without any downsides.

Proposed mechanisms are not yet defined but research is being undertaken by a number of groups globally.


[1] Foods to Avoid in Pregnancy Pregnancy Birth & Baby

[2] Teas, J et al  2009 Could dietary seaweed reverse the metabolic syndrome? Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 18 (2) 145-157 (Click for Abstract) (Click to download full paper)

[3] Teas, J et al 2013 The consumption of seaweed as a protective factor in the etiology of breast cancer: proof of principle. J Appl Phycol 25 771-779  DOI:10.1007/s10811-012-9931-0 (Click for Abstract)

[4] Wanyonyi, S; du Preez, R; Brown, L; Paul, N; Panchal, S  2017 Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Nutrients (9) 11 DOI:10.3390/nu9111261 (Click for Abstract)

[5] Makkar, H. P. S., Tran, G., Heuzé, V., Giger-Reverdin, S., Lessire, M., Lebas, F., & Ankers, P. (2016, February 1). Seaweeds for livestock diets: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology. Elsevier.

[6] Okab, AB, Samara, EM et al 2013 Effects of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on the reproductive performance of buck and doe rabbits, Journal of Applied Animal Research, 41:3, 347-355, DOI: 10.1080/09712119.2013.783479

[7] Pringgenies, D, Ghofur, A, Azizah R, Ridho A. 2013 Effect of Red Seaweed (Euchema cottonii) Powder Administration To The Quantity and Quality of Spermatozoa of Allethrin-Exposed House Mice Managing Aquatic Resources in Blue Economy

[8] Skibola, C.F. The effect of Fucus vesiculosus, an edible brown seaweed, upon menstrual cycle length and hormonal status in three pre-menopausal women: a case report. BMC Complement Altern Med 4, 10 (2004).

[9] Skibola, C.F, Curry, J.D, VandeVoort, C, Conley A, Smith, M.T. Brown Kelp Modulates Endocrine Hormones in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats and in Human Luteinized Granulosa Cells. 2005 The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 135, Issue 2, Pages 296–300,

[10]  du Preez, R. et al. Carrageenans from the Red Seaweed Sarconema filiforme Attenuate Symptoms of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Mar. Drugs 18, 97 (2020).

[11] Myers SP, O’Connor J, Fitton JH, et al. A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis. Biologics. 2010;4:33-44. Published 2010 Mar 24. doi:10.2147/btt.s8354


This is to present our understanding to date from information published in the literature by others. This does not constitute medical advice and you should seek advice from your physician.

This is a brief review and our understanding of published information. The information is certainly worthy of further study due to the importance in society for reproduction. When natural reproduction is difficult, many face high cost and trauma.

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Seafood allergies and Seaweed

Biosea Health warns customers about seafood allergies and seaweed. The ingredients in Pacific Seamoss is listed as Kappahycus alvarezii or a red tropical seaweed in a gel capsule. In some other products it is a blend and the percentages of the seaweeds are listed. It is 100% seaweed. For the full and most recent label – check out

For more information, there is a a detailed list of nutrients and vitamins.

For food compliance we put a warning for seafood allergies and seaweed on the packet. Why? Seaweed grows in the ocean and that is a whole soup of plants and animals – as soon as we plant the seaweed we get tiny shellfish such as mussels and oysters. Seaweed is their food source of choice. Then little fish come along to feast on the shellfish and the seaweed. Likewise bigger fish and in some areas, turtles get involved as well.

With squid and other tropical fish it soon becomes an area where pelagic fish such as barracuda and even whale sharks. 

When we harvest seaweed in about 45 days later there is a whole community. Our seaweed farmers remove all the things they can see. But we know there will may be small creatures that get through the inspection and subsequent washing in clean fresh water. It may be just be a microscopic shellfish that got through the process and it might be in a 1 in a thousand or even one in 10 thousand capsule.

Symptoms and Signs of Seafood Allergy

Symptoms and signs of seafood allergy. About 2.3% or 6million in the USA have allergy – 2% for shellfish, 0.4% with fish, and 0.2% for both. Women are twice as likely as men to have allergies. [1]

Seafood allergies can be serious. Symptoms of fish or shellfish allergies vary and range from mild reactions to a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis). The most common symptom is raised red bumps of skin (hives). Other symptoms include wheezing and trouble breathing, cramps, diarrhoea, nausea or vomiting.

Hence the warning. A bit like the warning that chocolate might be made in a factory with nuts.

Seaweed Farming Creates Sustainable Ecosystems

From a sustainable ocean practice we come up against food rules that are designed for sterile glasshouses…..


[1] Sicherer S, Muñoz-Furlong A, Sampson H 2004 Prevalence of seafood allergy in the United States determined by a random telephone survey,
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 114, Issue 1, pp 159-165,
ISSN 0091-6749,

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Seaweed is Full of Vitamins

Seaweed is full of vitamins, but analysis of vitamins has not been straightforward and many papers do not publish the levels. The amount of vitamins will depend on:

  • Growing conditions for the seaweed crop
  • Age of seaweed at harvest
  • Genotype or form of the seaweed
  • DNA or genotype of the seaweed
  • Conditions at harvest
  • Post harvest treatments
  • Chemical process to extract the vitamins from the seaweed as the vitamins may be tightly bound in the biological material

all lead to variation in the levels of vitamins measured.

Seaweed is full of vitamins

The data presented included:

  • Review of the quantity as measured by the researcher
  • Averaging of data where there is general agreement
  • RDI numbers are based on a 19 to 50 year old woman – rather than some RDI numbers that vary depending on sex and on age of the human

Vitamin Analysis for Pacific Seamoss

Vitamin / Or Other NameTotal in 2.50Quantity per 100gRDI (ug or mg)Serving as % of RDI
Vitamin A (retinol + Beta Carotene)131.5ug131.5ug700.0ug19%
Vitamin B1 (thiamine)0.2mg0.2mg1.0mg19%
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)0.5ug0.5ug1.7ug30%
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) mg0.5mg0.5mg16.0mg3%
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic)0.0mg0.0mg5.0mg0%
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)0.0mg0.0mg1.2mg0%
Vitamin B7 (biotin)0.0ug0.0ug0.3ug8%
Vitamin B9 (folic acid)30.5ug30.5ug400.0ug8%
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)0.0ug0.0ug2.4ug0%
Vitamin C2.7mg2.7mg45.0mg6%
Vitamin D6.3ug6.3ug15.0ug42%
Vitamin E6.1mg6.1mg20.0mg30%
Vitamin K0.6ug0.6ug70.0ug1%
Seaweeds are a good source of vitamins. The amount of vitamins does depend on when the age of seaweed, the harvesting process, drying and heating and processing. These numbers are best estimates based on previous published papers, and are subject to change,

Customers have told us they feel better, and it is probably the Vitamin B that assist. It may be trace elements, but the combination of trace elements and vitamins may complement each other.


Cotas, João, Adriana Leandro, Diana Pacheco, Ana M. M. Gonçalves, and Leonel Pereira. 2020. ‘A Comprehensive Review of the Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Applications of Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)’. Life 10 (3): 19.

Fayaz, Mohamed. 2005. ‘Chemical Composition, Iron Bioavailability, and Antioxidant Activity of Kappaphycus Alvarezzi (Doty) | Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry’. 6 January 2005.

Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. (Link Here)

Rajasulochana, P. & Krishnamoorthy, P.. (2013). An investigation on the neutraceutical aspects of the Kappaphycus alvarezii. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 5. 25-33. (Link Here)

Rajasulochana, P. & Krishnamoorthy, P. & Dhamotharan, R.. (2013). An investigation on the antioxidants, antifungal and antibacterial of the Kappaphycus alvarezii. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 4. 586-594. (Link Here)

Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001. 13, Arsenic, Boron, Nickel, Silicon, and Vanadium. Available from:

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Trace Elements in Seaweed


Trace elements in seaweed and even macro nutrient analysis of seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii used in Pacific Seamoss is not published or standardized in the USDA data. This review of data from researchers confirms seaweed is very nutritious and can provide hard to get nutrients in an easy form. We publish this in a form to be used in nutrition of seaweed.

Various sources of information are conflicting as the seaweed has been grown in different areas and authors seldom measured what we know is important in seaweed nutrition including the water quality, the age of the seaweed, the phenotype, and how it treated and stored post harvest. The various authors include:

  • Wanyoni in 20171 with seaweed from the Yasawa Islands, Fiji
  • Rajasculochana  2,3 from Tamil Nadu in India in 2010 and 2013 has differing levels in different papers.
  • Keyimu Abdullah 2016 4 used Malaysian seaweed from Langkawi and Sabah
  • Seasonal variations in nutrients were identified by Kumar 5 who collected in Gujarat in NorthWest India
  • Abriami in 2011 reviewed nutrient and nutraceutical potential in Tamil Nadu, India 6
  • Lumbessy 7 focused on amino acids from West Nusa Tenggara Indonesia
  • Fayaz 2005 8 measured some vitamins in India

What are RDI, EAR and %DI Values

There are 3 different measures for how much to eat or how much is safe.

The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is used to examine the probability that usual intake is inadequate. It is used to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes within a group. The Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI) is used when usual intake at or above this level has a low probability of inadequacy. It is higher than the EAR sometimes as it is the daily intake level of a nutrient considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States. 

The RDI values are taken from a range of sources 8 (AU / NZ standards here)

Recently, the labeling regulations in the USA has changed to % Daily Value (%DV) and is the percentage of the Daily Value for each nutrient in a serving of the food. The Daily Values are reference amounts (expressed in grams, milligrams, or micrograms) of nutrients to consume or not to exceed each day.

For chemicals to be mimimised, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) used and is defined as the maximum amount of a chemical that can be ingested daily over a lifetime with no appreciable health risk, and is based on the highest intake that does not give rise to observable adverse effects.

Amino Acid Requirements

Only the essential amino acids have requirements.  The numbers are from Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th Edition. National Research Council (US) Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1989. They are based on the mg per kg of weight. 9

Upper Limits

Upper limits are set for some minerals such as nickel. 10.

Trace Elements Nutrient Levels of Pacific Sea Moss

Name of ElementSymbolPer ServePer 100gRDI or %DVDaily Serve ( % RDI)
The trace element nutrients values are from Wanyonyi et al 2017 for Kappaphycus alvarezii from Fiji Mar. Drugs 2017, 15 and other researchers over the past 15 years. There is varying nutrient levels depending on time of year, age of harvest of the seaweed. See the label for the values of major elements and vitamins.

Good Nutrition. Good Outcomes

Customers tell us about how good they feel from eating seaweed. Hair growth. Nail growth.


[1] Wanyonyi S, du Preez R, Brown L, Paul NA, Panchal SK. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Supplementary Data. Nutrients. 2017;9(11):2. doi:10.3390/nu9111261

[2] Rajasulochana P, Krishnamoorthy P, Dhamotharan R. Amino acids, fatty acids and minerals in Kappaphycus sp. 2010;5(5):12.Rajasulochana P, Krishnamoorthy P. An investigation on the neutraceutical aspects of the Kappaphycus alvarezii. Int J Pharm Res. 2013;5:25-33.

[3] Keyimu X, Abdullah A. Determination of Element Compositions and Antioxidant Activities of Kappaphycus alvarezii Found in the Waters of Langkawi and Sabah, Malaysia. Int J ChemTech Res. Published online 2016:6.

[4] Kumar KS, Ganesan K, Subba Rao PV, Thakur MC. Seasonal studies on field cultivation of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty on the northwest coast of India. J Appl Phycol. 2016;28(2):1193–1205. doi:10.1007/s10811-015-0629-y

[5]Abirami RG, Kowsalya S. Nutrient and Nutraceutical Potentials of Seaweed Biomass Ulva lactuca and Kappaphycus alvarezii. :8.

[6] Lumbessy SY, Andayani S, Nursyam H, Firdaus M. Biochemical study of amino acid profile of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria salicornia seaweeds from Gerupuk Waters, West Nusa Tenggara (NTB). EurAsian J Biosci. Published online 2019:5.

[7] Chemical Composition, Iron Bioavailability, and Antioxidant Activity of Kappaphycus alvarezzi (Doty) | Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Accessed October 26, 2020.

[8] Allowances NRC (US) S on the TE of the RD. Protein and Amino Acids. National Academies Press (US); 1989. Accessed October 26, 2020.

[9] Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. :320.

[10] Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001. 13, Arsenic, Boron, Nickel, Silicon, and Vanadium. Available from:

Biosea Health Health Benefits Period Pain

Seaweed Helps Perimenopause

A question asked by customers is does seaweed help perimenopause (menopausal transition)? Perimenopause [1] is that transition from the reproductive phase to menopause. It normally takes 2 to 6 years, but in some cases even longer. Systemic reviews [2] say the following 5 symptoms are typical:

  • Mood swings
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Night sweats
  • Trouble falling asleep
  • Sexual discomfort

The Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) criteria defines 4 stages of perimenopause or menopausal transition from a reproductive age through to menopause. “Premature menopause” is when the final menstrual period occurs before a woman is 40. “Early menopause” is when the final menstrual period occurs before a woman is 45. For women who experience premature or early menopause, HRT is strongly recommended until the average age of menopause (around 51 years), unless there is a particular reason for a woman not to take it.

From Australian Menopause Society (Whitepaper at this link)

Whats Happening?

The primary change is a change in the type of oestrogen. During the reproductive phase (from adolescent to about 50 years old) every month there is changing mix of hormones – including levels of oestrogen, progesterone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH). During perimenopause, this cycle can be all over the place which is why women experience minor change to very large disruption to their life and health.

oestrogen hormone levels
Regulating hormones in the reproductive phase

There are 3 types of oestrogen.

  • In the reproductive age, the primary oestrogens is oestradiol 
  • Oestriol is a hormone made during pregnancy in the placentathat can be used to measure fetal health and predict when birth may happen.
  • In menopause, the predominant oestrogen is called oestrone.

It is this transition of oestrodiol oestrogen to oestrone oetrogen that is the primary cause of disruption during perimenopause.

Hot Flushes and Oestrogen

Hot flushes (or flashes) are not actually temperature changes but more like an adrenaline rush – which makes you feel hot, and also makes you wide awake (hence the issue with sleeplessness). Most research suggests that hot flushes occur when decreased estrogen levels cause your body’s thermostat (hypothalamus) to become more sensitive to slight changes in body temperature. When the hypothalamus thinks your body is too warm, it starts a chain of events — a hot flush — to cool you down. For more info on hot flushes, check out the Mayo Clinic.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

HRT, also known as hormone therapy (HT) or menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), is medication containing the hormones that a woman’s body stops producing after menopause (the oestrodial). HRT is used to treat menopausal symptoms.[7]

While HRT reduces the likelihood of some debilitating diseases such as osteoporosis, colorectal (bowel) cancer and heart disease, it may increase the chances of developing a blood clot (when given in tablet form) or breast cancer (when some types are used long-term).[7]

How Seaweed Helps Perimenopause and Menopause

There is some evidence that seaweed helps perimenopause but there has been little research focused on this. Some of the natural products include seaweed (generally kelp) and data from our Pacific Seamoss customers have commented on a large improvement. Anecdotal data is good, but what will be needed is a broader clinical trial. Remember the 5 major symptoms?

  • Mood swings. About 30 to 66 percent of menopausal people will experience menopausal depression if they have experienced previous depression, postpartum depression, premenstrual syndrome or premenstrual dysphoric disorder before menopause. Ten to 20 percent of perimenopausal people will experience anxiety and/or depression for the first time. Seaweed reduced mood swings by 50% for premenstrual symptoms of women of reproductive age. Does it also reduce mood swings for older women?
  • Urinary incontinence. Some customers reported improvement
  • Night sweats. No feedback
  • Trouble falling asleep: Most customers report better sleep
  • Sexual discomfort or dyspareunia. As estrogen levels fall as women approach and pass menopause, the resulting dryness and thinning of vaginal tissues can cause penetration and intercourse to be uncomfortable for many women. The discomfort can range from a feeling of dryness to a feeling of vaginal “tightness” to severe pain during sex. This is a very private topic, and it is unlikely customers would tell us.

Seaweed Assists General Health

Seaweed has good quantities of vitamins (Vit B1, B3, B6, B12) and minerals (K, Iodine) and is an effective pre-biotic and changes gut bacteria. [6]. It may provide some relief from osteoarthritis which may start to show up in this age group.

Seaweed May Normalise Transition

The oestrogen levels can be all over the place. Back 20 years ago there was focus on soy and phyto-estrogens which help stabilisation over the transition. These days HRT treatment is used to stabilise those changes.

Seaweed may help in the perimenopause phases by normalising hormonal swings during this transition. A pilot trial showed reduction in pain and in bleeding in younger women, and reduction in PMS symptoms in peri-menopausal participants. Teas showed reduction in oestrogen in her animal studies and in breast cancer survivors.

Seaweed Is Protective against Cancers

Prof Jane Teas from 1981 [3] to 2013 [4] looked at why seaweed was protective against a range of cancers – breast and uterine, and her conclusion was that the proposed mechanisms of action are: reduction of plasma cholesterol, binding of biliary steriods, inhibition of carcinogenic fecal flora, binding of pollutants, stimulation of the immune system, and the protective effects of beta-sitosterols. So the mechanism is unclear or complicated. It may be normalisation of oestrogen by seaweed provides some protective mechanism.

Estrogen is believed to have a positive effect on the inner layer of artery wall, helping to keep blood vessels flexible. A decline in the natural hormone estrogen may be a factor in heart disease increase among post-menopausal women.[9]

Before menopause, oestrodial is protective. Once a women moves to menopause, there no longer is that protective oestrodiol and women past peri-menopause have similar lifestyle disease (heart and cancer rates) as men.

Before You Go

Facebook is preventing a number of companies that sell lubricants for women going through menopause to advertise on its service despite allowing ads for equivalent products from brands that target men. In a post in 2019, CNBC explores the world of social media. Facebook was blocking ads that target women with menopause but allowed ads from companies selling pills for erectile dysfunction. When you investigate how much money goes into one aspect of women’s health, endometriosis, US research is less than $0.60 per person. Erectile dysfunction is 19 times that research money.


[1] Five Solutions for Menopause Symptoms The North American Menopausal Society 2020 (Google)

[2] Taebi, M., Abdolahian, S., Ozgoli, G., Ebadi, A., & Kariman, N. (2018). Strategies to improve menopausal quality of life: A systematic review. Journal of education and health promotion7, 93.

[3] Teas J 1981 The consumption of seaweed as a protective factor in the etiology of breast cancer. Medical Hypotheses Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 601-613, ISSN 0306-9877,

[4] Teas, J et al 2013 The consumption of seaweed as a protective factor in the etiology of breast cancer: proof of principle. J Appl Phycol 25 771-779  DOI:10.1007/s10811-012-9931-0 (Click for Abstract) (Click to download full paper)

[6] Wanyonyi, S; du Preez, R; Brown, L; Paul, N; Panchal, S  2017 Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Nutrients (9) 11 DOI:10.3390/nu9111261 (Click for Abstract) (Click to download full paper)

[7] Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and menopause Victoria Health

[8] Hot flashes Patient Care & Health Information Mayo Clinic

[9] Heart disease and menopause American Heart Association

[10] Why everyone needs to know more about menopause — especially now. Washington Post 2020

Medical Disclaimer

This is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice and should not be relied on as health or personal advice. Always seek the guidance of your doctor or other qualified health professional with any questions you may have regarding your health or a medical condition.

Biosea Health

Seaweed Iodine Levels

Seaweed iodine levels are good and are an excellent source of dietary iodine intake necessary for production of the thyroid hormone. Many people globally suffer from marginal deficiencies and where you live makes a big difference [1]. Pacific Seamoss has levels sufficient to meet any deficiencies but not too much. The label is here. There is ongoing research on levels of iodine and safety [3] [4] of seaweeds.

Iodine is a trace element required for the synthesis and function of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) thyroid hormones. In Japan, where approximately 20 different types of seaweed are consumed, the majority being wakame (Undaria spp), kombu (Laminaria spp), and nori (Porphyra spp), iodine intake varies from 0.1 to 20 mg/d (average intake, 1–3 mg/d), which can exceed the upper tolerable limits of 600 µg/d (EFSA) and 1100 µg/d (World Health Organization)

The consequences of iodine deficiency include goiter, intellectual impairments, growth retardation, neonatal hypothyroidism, and increased pregnancy loss and infant mortality.

10 Reasons You need Iodine

These are the 10 reasons often provided – but simplification hides complexity! A question is how much is enough, and how much is too much, and it depends on the form of the iodine, the source of your food, additives in food and health.

  • Necessary for metabolism and thyroid function
  • Helps your brain stay sharp
  • Protects the body from toxins
  • Protects from radiation
  • A natural antiseptic
  • A powerful antioxidant
  • Ensures reproductive health
  • Helps prevent hair loss
  • Maintains strong teeth and bones
  • Helps stabilize your mood
  • Iodine is the food of the thyroid, and the thyroid is the “command center” of all your metabolism.

Eliminating Iodine Deficiency Globally

Both insufficient and excessive iodine intake can result in thyroid disease. The term “iodine deficiency disorders” refers to all of the consequences of iodine deficiency, which depend on its severity and the age of the affected subject. When severe iodine deficiency occurs during pregnancy, it is associated with fetal hypothyroidism, mental impairment, and increased neonatal and infant mortality. In adults, iodine-induced hypothyroidism is rare, while the most common manifestation is goiter that progresses to nodular goiter and eventually to thyroid autonomy and hyperthyroidism.

The United Nations World Summit for Children established the goal of eliminating iodine deficiency worldwide in 1990 (30 years ago!) In 2018, Unicef reported progress mostly through programs of universal salt iodization. Approximately 86% of all households worldwide currently have access to adequately iodized salt.

This improvement in iodine nutrition translates into a near elimination globally of new cases of cretinism, the most serious form of iodine deficiency. It has decreased the incidence of goiter and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as stillbirths, while protecting the intellectual capacity of hundreds of millions of children worldwide, with a significant impact on the lives of future generations.

Back in 2013, as defined by a national or subnational median urinary iodine concentration of 100-299 μg/L in school-aged children, 111 countries have sufficient iodine intake. Thirty countries remain iodine-deficient; 9 are moderately deficient, 21 are mildly deficient, and none are currently considered severely iodine-deficient. Ten countries have excessive iodine intake. In North America, both the United States and Canada are generally iodine-sufficient, although recent data suggest pregnant U.S. women are mildly iodine-deficient. Emerging issues include discrepancies between urinary iodine status in pregnant women compared to school-aged children in some populations, the problem of re-emerging iodine deficiency in parts of the developed world, the importance of food industry use of iodized salt, regions of iodine excess, and the potential effects of initiatives to lower population sodium consumption on iodine intake.

In Australia, even though iodized salt is used in bread, the Australian Thyroid Foundation says more than 50% of children and pregnant or breastfeeding women living in Australia have been shown to be iodine deficient, and are at risk of developing thyroid disease.

Salt is needed, but as intake of salt is reduced then people run the risk of iodine deficiency

Beware High Iodine in Kelp

Kombu kelp can contain up to 2.9mg of iodine per seaweed sheet (1 gram). This provides almost 2,000% of the recommended daily intake (6). Excess iodine consumption is well-tolerated in the majority of people but could result in thyroid dysfunction for those who are susceptible. In contrast red seaweeds have “low” iodine.

Type of Iodine

In dietary supplements, iodine is often present as potassium iodide or sodium iodide. In seaweeds, iodide serves the function of an antioxidant, protecting the apoplast (cell wall space) of the cortical cell layers. The iodide was probably the first inorganic and the chemically simplest antioxidant known from a living system. [7]. It mops up H2O2The iodide may change to a potassium iodide salt with the drying process, but there is no literature we have found.

How Much Iodine Do Japanese Eat

Researchers frequently overestimate, or underestimate, Japanese iodine intake from seaweeds, which results in misleading and potentially dangerous diet and supplementation recommendations for people aiming to achieve the same health benefits seen by the Japanese. Zava estimated in detail that the Japanese iodine intake–largely from seaweeds–averages 1,000-3,000 μg/day (1-3 mg/day). Boiling reduces iodine levels.


Although substantial progress has been made over the last several decades, iodine deficiency remains a significant health problem worldwide and affects both industrialized and developing nations. Monitoring of population iodine status remains important. There are vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and infants. There is also need for ongoing monitoring of iodized salt and other dietary iodine sources in order to prevent excess as well as insufficient iodine nutrition.

Daily eating of seaweed provides iodine in amounts to ensure adequate levels of iodine nutrition as salt intake declines.


[1]Aghini-Lombardi F, Vitti P, Antonangeli L, et al. The size of the community rather than its geographical location better defines the risk of iodine deficiency: results of an extensive survey in Southern Italy. J Endocrinol Invest. 2013;36(5):282-286. (Pubmed)

[2] BRIGHTER FUTURES Protecting early brain development through salt iodization UNICEF

[3] Kumar M & Sharma S (2020) Toxicological effects of marine seaweeds: a cautious insight for human consumption, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1738334

[4] Cherry P, O’Hara C, Magee PJ, McSorley EM, Allsopp PJ. Risks and benefits of consuming edible seaweeds. Nutrition Reviews. 2019 May;77(5):307-329. DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuy066.

[5] Iodine Fact Sheet, Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institute of Health (Google Link)

[6] Zava, T.T., Zava, D.T. Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis. Thyroid Res 4, 14 (2011).

[7] Küpper, Frithjof. (2015). Iodine in seaweed: Two centuries of research. 591-596. 10.1007/978-3-642-53971-8_23.

Biosea Health Period Pain

Seaweed Reduces Period Bleeding

Periods are experienced by over 2.1 Billion women globally. Humans are only one of 84 species out of 5149 species [1] that suffer from bleeding in menstruation. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) are experienced most women at sometime. Estimates of the numbers who experience dsymenorrhea regularly vary but best estimate is between 40 to 60%. In a 150 person trial in 2020, we found seaweed reduced period bleeding. Not only a reduction in duration but also in the heaviness, leading to lower use of feminine products and improved quality of life.

Women in 2019 will have approximately 400 periods over their lives, in contrast to a century ago when women would have about 40. Shorter lifespans, more children, more time spent in breastfeeding all contributed to the lower number.

From Critchley. Menstruation: science and society. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2020.

Therefore, abnormal uterine bleeding. (or AUB) is increasingly common. Women may experience significant anemia resulting in a poor physical quality of life. A negative financial effect occurs because of the cost of managing their blood loss and an inability to work outside the home. These costs, alongside a loss of caring ability, will have a negative effect on the wider family. The cost to society through loss of work days and healthcare costs is significant. A UK study showed that women on average have 8 days off work annually and other studies put the cost at over $9 billion direct costs and lost productivity per year.

Periods and Bleeding are Taboo Subjects

In 2020, Facebook has maintained a ban on an advert for women’s period undies despite its creators fighting the ruling three times.

Australian underwear brand Modibodi specialises in “leak-proof” undies that help women during their menstruation cycles as well as with incontinence. Unlike traditional sanitary pads and tampons, the underwear has a special lining built in that absorbs the bodily fluids and can be used, washed and re-used multiple times.

But the brand’s latest ad campaign, which discusses how women are made to feel “gross” when they have their periods, has been labelled “shocking” and “sensational” by Facebook for showing images of menstrual blood.

This taboo is not new [5]. In seventeenth-century Spain, in addition to being accused of spreading the plague, Jewish males were commonly assumed to menstruate: the Jewish body supposedly leaked impure blood. Certain important Spanish doctors—the king’s own physicians—demonstrated menstruation to be symptomatic in Jewish males. These physicians and other sources from the time typically combine the accusation of menstruation with that of hemorrhoids, classifying a blood flow from the anatomically ambiguous lower strata of the male body as a Jewish disease. While this was not a new accusation, in seventeenth-century Spain it was combined for the first time with legal language that sought to create a notion of “impure blood” as referring to one’s family or caste. In  Beusterien’s study, he argues that medical discourse about menstruation was here uniquely combined with legal discourse in order to create a notion of racial impurity.

How Is Period Bleeding Measured?

Which measure is the most relevant? The total number of days that the woman has bleeding? The number of heavy bleeding days? In a company pilot trial of 150 participants to investigate the effect of seaweed on dysmenorrhea, we asked trial participants to report on both the duration and heaviness of menstrual bleeding.

Seaweed Reduced Severity of Bleeding

Seaweed reduced the number of days of heavy bleeding. Before, 24% reported heavy bleed days, but afterwards, this had dropped to 12%. The number of women where heavy bleeding was only 1 day went from 6% to over 23%.

Data from 150 trial participants in May 2020. The number of heavy bleeding days.

Seaweed reduces Duration of Bleeding

A really interesting outcome for the women in the trial was that the duration of bleeding reduced by 2 days on average. Most women (70%) experience bleeding days of 4 or more. After seaweed, only 40% had days of bleeding greater than 4.

Pacific Seamoss seaweed reduces days of bleeding in menstruation
Data from trial October 2020. n=71, P=0.001. Before seaweed, 63% said their days of bleeding were 4 to 6 days. After seaweed, it halved. Those reporting 2 to 4 days rose from 31% to 55%.  I.e. For many, duration of bleeding drops about 2 days.

What Did Women Say?

Check out what trial participants said here

Tonnes of Waste

Pads and tampons are responsible for about 200,000 tonnes of waste per year – most of which contains plastic. Then there’s the secondary issue of flushing used products down the toilet, with nearly 0.5% of all marine plastics debris being tampon applicators.[5]

From National Geographic Sept 6, 2019 [6]

This colossal waste burden however, isn’t the only ecological impact of disposable feminine hygiene products. A Life Cycle Assessment of tampons conducted by the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, found that the largest impact on global warming was caused by the processing of LDPE (low-density polyethylene, a thermoplastic made from the monomer ethylene) used in tampon applicators as well as in the plastic back-strip of a sanitary napkin requiring high amounts of fossil fuel generated energy. A year’s worth of a typical feminine hygiene product leaves a carbon footprint of 5.3 kg CO2 equivalents. [7]


[1] Critchley H. et al. (2020) Menstruation: science and society . American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology available online 21 July 2020 Prepress.

[2] Molina, N.M.; Sola-Leyva, A.; Saez-Lara, M.J.; Plaza-Diaz, J.; Tubić-Pavlović, A.; Romero, B.; Clavero, A.; Mozas-Moreno, J.; Fontes, J.; Altmäe, S. New Opportunities for Endometrial Health by Modifying Uterine Microbial Composition: Present or Future? Biomolecules 202010, 593.

[3] Facebook bans Modibodi period underwear ad for violating guidelines 2020

[4] Beusterien, John L. “Jewish Male Menstruation in Seventeenth-Century Spain.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 73 no. 3, 1999, p. 447-456. Project MUSEdoi:10.1353/bhm.1999.0097.

[5] The environmental impact of tampons and pads. (Taboo)

[6] How tampons and pads became so unsustainable (National Geographic)

[7] The Ecological Impact of Feminine Hygiene Products 2016 (Accessed 2020)

Biosea Health Pain Reduction

Seaweed reduces Hangovers

Rainee, a convertee to Pacific Seamoss confided to me that consuming seaweed reduces hangovers. During the Covid-19, we know that consumption of alcohol has increased [1]. Not everyone wants to admit this, but I had consumed a bottle of white wine, and the next morning felt full of energy, and not hungover. My alcohol tolerance is low, and consuming 2 standard drinks of alcohol would leave me feeling very jaded the next day.

With the comments of Rainee, and my own experience we dived back into the literature. Was this effect real? Could it be explained?

You don’t have to be good to feel good!

Hangovers suck. If there’s one statement all of humanity can get behind, it’s hangovers suck. Throbbing headaches, fluey shakes, gut-churning bedspins—it doesn’t matter if you spent the night pounding cheap beer or vintage Bordeaux; when you’re hungover, you want one thing: to make all the awful feelings stop.

And there are whole heap of really weird hangover cures in various societies.

  • Cow intestine, calves’ feet, and milk are the three main ingredients in khashi, the slippery white stew that Georgians swear by as a hangover panacea
  • The Peruvians use the left over juice from ceviche
  • The Italians have a Neapolitan tonic on the brink of extinction, gassosa dall’acquafrescaio which blends fresh-squeezed Sorrento lemon juice, sparkling volcanic water, and baking soda to create a frothy “eruption” in the glass
  • Outer Mongolia – sheep’s eyes
  • USA – prairie oysters – raw egg and Tabasco sauce (not calves testicles)
  • Korean haejangguk (literally “hangover soup”) is the catch-all genre of beef-and-vegetable stews – but with seaweed.
  • According to Irish folklore, it was said that the cure for a hangover was to bury the ailing person up to the neck in moist river sand. This is obviously not a recommended hangover cure.

Look No Further! Seaweed to the Rescue

In a consumer survey in 2019 from early users of Pacific Seamoss surprisingly said that they felt better at 8 to 12 days. Published research work from Prof Lindsay Brown on obesity rat models showed marked improvement in liver function. His team demonstrated red seaweeds reduction in fatty liver fat deposits, reduction in fat vesicles. [3] [4]. We know that the liver damage from obesity is pathologically the same as the damage from alcohol. For a full review of liver damage caused by non-alcohol check out this review [5] but for alcohol fatty liver disease this reveiw [6]. More concerning is that fatty liver disease is associated with cancer [7].

What we know from science:

  • Alcohol causes liver inflammation
  • Seaweed reduces liver inflammation and the presence of fat vesicles in the liver of with obesity models
  • Seaweed extracts reduced liver inflammation

Extracts of Seaweed Reduced Liver Damage

In a trial with mice in 2017, Yin et al used extracted carbohydrates from a seaweed. They fed different rates of seaweed extracts to mice who were fed alcohol, and looked at liver function and size.

Growth rates increased

We know that alcohol stunts growth, one of the many reasons why women should not drink during pregnancy. We also know alcohol is contributor to a whole range of diseases including heart, dementia and cancers. But in this trial, scientists used growth rates to measure health in mice. They found seaweed extracts negated the effects of the alcohol on growth.

Group7 day15 daysGrowth %
OAS 50 mg + alcohol243443
OAS 150 mg + alcohol233345
OAS 250 mg + alcohol233447
OAS 350 mg + alcohol243543
From Yin et al Growth rates of animals with seaweed extract were normal.

When the researchers looked at the serum levels after feeding alcohol, and the damage change that alcohol sets off, what they concluded is that the seaweed has a protective mechanism on the liver.

From Yin et al 2017. Effects of AOS on serum ALT and AST enzymatic activities against alcohol-induced acute liver injuries in mice.

So seaweed has a protective mechanism, and the authors concluded that mice should take these seaweed extracts 2 hours before consumption of alcohol.

But our best guess is taking seaweed on a daily basis will provide that same protection. Given most people who suffer hangovers will drink to excess on a regular basis. So take seaweed. Stop the hangovers. Then see a support agency to stop drinking to excess.

Our study demonstrated that AOS exerted promising hepatoprotective effects, which may have potential applications in prevention and protection of oxidative stress-induced liver injuries

Yin et al 2017.


  • Seaweed shows protective mechanism against liver damage from alcohol.
  • Seaweed shows protective mechanisms against obesity and high sugar intake.
  • Customers report feeling better with no hangovers from alcohol
  • Yet another reason to consume seaweed for good health.


We do not promote excess alcohol consumption. We recommend you follow the appropriate health guidelines set by your national health bodies.


[1] Alcohol consumption increases during COVID-19 crisis (Australia National University Report)

[2] Yin et al 2017. Preparation, characterization and alcoholic liver injury protective effects of algal oligosaccharides from Gracilaria lemaneiformis Food Research International Vol 100, Part 2, October 2017, Pages 186-195

[3] Wanyonyi, S., du Preez, R., Brown, L., Paul, N. A. & Panchal, S. K. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Nutrients 9, 2 (2017).

[4] du Preez, R. et al. Carrageenans from the Red Seaweed Sarconema filiforme Attenuate Symptoms of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Mar. Drugs 18, 97 (2020).

[5] Than N, Newsome P. 2015 A concise review of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease 2015

[6] Osna, N. A., Donohue, T. M., Jr, & Kharbanda, K. K. (2017). Alcoholic Liver Disease: Pathogenesis and Current Management. Alcohol research : current reviews, 38(2), 147–161. (NCBI)

[7] Dhamija, E., Paul, S. B., & Kedia, S. (2019). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with hepatocellular carcinoma: An increasing concern. The Indian journal of medical research149(1), 9–17.

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Lifeline Australia Tel 131114

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