07 Feb Seaweed for Livestock
Seaweeds are macroalgae, which generally reside in the littoral zone and can be of many different shapes, sizes, colours and composition. They include brown algae (Phaeophyceae), red algae (Rhodophyceae) and green algae (Chlorophyceae). Brown seaweeds have been more studied and are more exploited than other algae types for their use in animal feeding because of their large size and ease of harvesting. Brown algae are of lesser nutritional value than red and green algae, due to their lower protein content (up to approx. 14%) and higher mineral content; however brown algae contain a number of bioactive compounds. Red seaweeds are rich in crude protein (up to 50%) and green seaweeds also contain good protein content (up to 30%). Seaweeds contain a number of complex carbohydrates and polysaccharides. Brown algae contain alginates, sulphated fucose-containing polymers and laminarin; red algae contain agars, carrageenans, xylans, sulphated galactans and porphyrans; and green algae contain xylans and sulphated galactans. In ruminants, step-wise increase in the levels of seaweeds in the diet may enable rumen microbes to adapt and thus enhance energy availability from these complex carbohydrates. In monogastrics, those polysaccharides may impact the nutritional value but the addition of enzyme cocktails might help. In vivo studies on ruminants, pigs, poultry and rabbits reveal that some seaweeds have the potential to contribute to the protein and energy requirements of livestock, while others contain a number of bioactive compounds, which could be used as prebiotic for enhancing production and health status of both monogastric and ruminant livestock. Seaweeds tend to accumulate heavy metals (arsenic), iodine and other minerals, and feeding such seaweeds could deteriorate animal and human health. Regular monitoring of minerals in seaweeds would prevent toxic and other undesirable situations.
Nutrient Content of Seaweed
Seaweeds are rich in both macro and micro nutrients. They have a highly variable composition, depending on the species, time of collection and habitat, and on external conditions such as water temperature, light intensity and nutrient concentration in water. They may contain non-protein nitrogen, resulting in an overestimation of their protein content, and nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors lower than 6.25, normally used for feed ingredients, have been advocated. Red seaweeds are rich in crude protein and can be up to 50%. They contain considerable amount of water. Most essential amino acids are deficient in seaweeds except the sulphur containing amino acids. Seaweeds concentrate minerals from seawater and contain 10–20 times the minerals of land plants. They contain only small amounts of lipids (1–5%), but the majority of those lipids are polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The minerals in seaweed meal include potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sodium, chlorine, and sulfur as well as the trace elements (elements required in trace amounts) zinc, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, tin, vanadium, fluorine, and iodine. The mineral content of some seaweeds represents 30 percent of the dry matter weight. The vitamins in seaweed meal include ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and some B vitamins.
(from R.G. Abirami and S. Kowsalya 2010)
Heavy Metal Content
BioSea Feed has not detectable heavy metals including arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, and all batches are tested for presence of heavy metals. R.G. Abirami and S. Kowsalya 2010 did detect some heavy metals with seaweed from Indonesia, but K alverezii have no detectable levels grown at current sites in Mindinao.
|Heavy metals (ppm)||Upper limits of human food in EU||Ulva Lactuca|
(from R.G. Abirami and S. Kowsalya 2010)
The literature is full of publications that seaweed has bioactive compounds, and activity against antifouling, antifungicidal, antibacterial properties. (The antibacterial properties of Asparagopsis sp with a high level of bromoform is the current focus on reducing methane reductions in ruminants).
The nutritional value of six tropical seaweeds (Sargassum wightii, Ulva lactuca, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Hypnea musciformis, Acanthophora spicifera and Gracilaria corticata) as complementary source of dietary, proteins for human and animal nutrition based on amino acid profile was evaluated. All these species showed similar non-essential amino acid patterns in which aspartic and glutamic acids constituted together a large part of the amino acid fraction (25.2% to 29.5%). All of them were generally rich in phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine and tryptophan and deficient in methionine, cysteine, leucine and lysine.They generally showed a balanced amino acid profile comparable to FAO reference pattern. Seaweeds being rich in minerals, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as phycocolloids, partial substitution of costly protein sources in animal feeds with seaweed protein may improve feed quality while reducing the cost. Here is the Kappapycus and Gracilia analysis for comparison. Time of year maturity will all make a difference.
Some research says the nutritional value of seaweed as a feedstuff for poultry is satisfactory. Chemical analyses of dried marine red seaweed (Polysiphonia SPP) showed reasonable amounts of protein (32.4%); ether extract (17.7%), crude fiber (14.9%), ash (6.0%) and nitrogen free extract (23.4%). These authors concluded seaweed contained appropriate amounts of minerals required by poultry.
However, Alex Angell in 2016 says this is not correct. While seaweed has a high concentration and quality of protein, the reality is that seaweeds, irrespective of cultivation conditions and species are not viable as a protein source for monogastric (poultry and pigs). The levels become limiting and whole seaweed should be processed post harvest to concentrate into protein isolates and concentrates. It is clear that the other features of seaweed are contributing to the benefits from using seaweed as a feedstock; namely as a functional food with bioactive compounds.
Angell suggests that for Ulva (as an example) to extract salt, ulvans for pharmaceuticals, protein isolate and then use the remainder as residual. Solely using seaweed as a protein source would therefore discount the value of the bioactive compounds.
Mandal, A., Biswas, A., Mir, N., Tyagi, P., Kapil, D., & Biswas, A. (2018). Effects of dietary supplementation of Kappaphycus alvarezii on productive performance and egg quality traits of laying hens. Journal of Applied Phycology, 31(3), 2065-2072.
Tufarelli, V., & Laudadio, V. (2016). AN OVERVIEW ON THE FUNCTIONAL FOOD CONCEPT: PROSPECTIVES AND APPLIED RESEARCHES IN PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS AND SYNBIOTICS. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. https://doi.org/10.18006/2016.4(3S).273.278
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KESSI, F. A. (2016). i EVALUATION OF SEAWEEDS AS MINERAL SOURCE IN BROILER DIETS FAKI AME KESSI A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN TROPICAL ANIMAL PRODUCTION OF SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE. MOROGORO, TANZANIA. 2016. SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE. Retrieved from http://www.suaire.suanet.ac.tz:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/1506/FAKI AME KESSI.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Choi, Y. J., Lee, S. R., & Oh, J.-W. (2014). Effects of dietary fermented seaweed and seaweed fusiforme on growth performance, carcass parameters and immunoglobulin concentration in broiler chicks. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 27(6), 862–870. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2014.14015
Dandekar, T., Abdul-Lateef Mousa, H., Eisenreich, W., Hentschel, U., Prithiviraj, B., Kulshreshtha, G., … Hafting, J. (2016). Red Seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down Regulate Virulence Factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and Induce Immune Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans. Frontiers in Microbiology | Www.Frontiersin.Org, 1, 421. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00421
O’sullivan, L., Murphy, B., Mcloughlin, P., Duggan, P., Lawlor, P. G., Hughes, H., & Gardiner, G. E. (2010). Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications. Marine Drugs, 8, 2038–2064. https://doi.org/10.3390/md8072038
Van Krimpen, M., & Amsterdam, P. B. (2018). All at sea: Application of seaweeds in pig and poultry diets. Wageningen. Retrieved from https://www.feedproteinvision.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Day-1-Marinus-van-Krimpen.pdf
Makkar, H. P. S., Tran, G., Heuzé, V., Giger-Reverdin, S., Lessire, M., Lebas, F., & Ankers, P. (2016). Seaweeds for livestock diets: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 212, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.09.018
KESSI, F. A. (2016). i EVALUATION OF SEAWEEDS AS MINERAL SOURCE IN BROILER DIETS FAKI AME KESSI A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN TROPICAL ANIMAL PRODUCTION OF SOKOINE UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE. MOROGORO, TANZANIA. 2016. MOROGORO, TANZANIA. Retrieved from http://www.suaire.suanet.ac.tz:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/1506/FAKI AME KESSI.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Karimi, S. H. (2015). Effects of Red Seaweed (Palmaria palmata) Supplemented Diets Fed to Broiler Chickens Raised under Normal or Stressed Conditions. Halifax, Nova Scotia. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/364a/9577703da1be534899dc17a0677c583289f0.pdf
El-Deek, A. A., & Mervat Brikaa, A. (2009). Effect of Different Levels of Seaweed in Starter and Finisher Diets in Pellet and Mash Form on Performance and Carcass Quality of Ducks. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8(10), 1014–1021. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/72d5/6501899b7843c633e139abb3545a2164b6bd.pdf
Jacob, J. (2015). Seaweed in Poultry Diets – eXtension. Retrieved June 26, 2019, from https://articles.extension.org/pages/65717/seaweed-in-poultry-diets
Vinoj Kumar, V., & Kaladharan, P. (2007). Amino acids in the seaweeds as an alternate source of protein for animal feed. Mar.Biol.Ass India, 49(1), 35–40. Retrieved from http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/2111/
Raymond Angell, A. (2016). Seaweeds as an alternative crop for the production of protein. James Cook University. Retrieved from http://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/46892/