Biossea Pet

Here are some common questions about BioSea Pet.  More specific and detailed information are in the various news articles on the site. The detailed BioSea Pet label is here (Click Here)

Is Seaweed safe for Animals

Seaweed is safe for most animals and trials over the past 20 years show seaweed can be up to 10% of animal feed without any issue. Some seaweed (e.g. Asparagopsis species) are  being researched in ruminants to prevent methane production in ruminants. Most recent studies have shown strong animal health outcomes and in some trials replacement of Zinc and / or antibiotics.

For centuries, seaweed has been a component of diet to animals and humans. Most studies show increased growth rates, improved health and well-being.


Some fresh water turtles and reptiles may have some adverse effects from seaweed as seaweed has high levels of potassium (K).  While there is no data in the literature, potassium is generally in the range of 2 to 8 mmol/l. Hypokalaemia in reptiles will occur from inadequate intake or excessive loss (diarrhoea). In mammals, hyperkalaemia may occur with excessive potassium intake, decreased secretion or shift from intracellular to extracellular fluid (e.g. severe acidosis)

Is Biosea Boost Organic Certified

Biosea Boost is one of 2 organic certified liquid fertilizer produced in the Philippines. OCCP is the official certification  organizations who provide inspection and certification services.

Boost is grown and manufactured in the Davao region. The water quality of monitored regularly for biological and heavy metal presence.  Every batch is monitored and tested.


How Do I Know this Product is OK?

A question often asked.  How do I know this product is ok?  I.e. can we be sure that the processes are ok and that there will be no foreign baddies in it? This seaweed is grown in the tropics / Philippines / somewhere foreign. I don’t trust the food source.

Seaweed is food. We are legally and morally required to ensure that food is good to eat.  In Australia about 4 million people a year get food poisoning, and in the USA the Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that each year 48 million people get sick from a food-borne illness, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die. Researchers have identified more than 250 food-borne diseases. Most of them are infections, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

The last thing we want is to sell a food product that can make you ill.  We therefore have taken all steps available from planting to selling to remove risks. Every batch number can be tracked back to a GPS coordinate in the farming area.

  • The seaweed is organically grown in the cleanest water we can grow seaweed. The Pacific Ocean stretches 13,000 km to the nearest landfall on the USA West Coast
  • Seaweed is organic certified by the OCCP (Philippine organic certifying authority)
  • We are completing full HACCP Accreditation by an international authority (JAS / ANZ)
  • We are implementing ISO22000:2018 quality systems with policies and procedures more strict than most food producers.
  • We use a full paddock to plate system (AgKonect) to enable full traceability.

Water Quality and Product Tests are undertaken on every batch

  • Heavy metals  – Lead, Cadmium, Mercury
  • Coliform
  • Listeria
  • Salmonella
  • Moisture
  • Iodine levels
  • Staphylococcus

Testing of nutrient levels is done at regular intervals and research is underway to understand variation during different seasons.

What is Carrageenan

Although there are thousands of global carrageenophyte species, less than 20 are used commercially to produce carrageenan (GGN) – a gelling, thickening and stabilizer used in many dairy, meat and other products including beer, toothpaste, shampoo, air freshener gels, soy milk, diet sodas, pet foods, personal lubricants and food.

The most important products in terms of volume of carrageenan used are flavored milk (particularly chocolate), frozen desserts, ready-to-eat desserts, soy milk, and cottage cheese dressings It may be seen on labels as E407.

Carrageenan from Irish Moss has been used since the 15th Century and is an alternative for vegetarians or vegans to gelatin.

For more information, check out the details on Wikipedia.

The primary commercial warm water–cultivated species list includes Kappaphycus alverezii (previously Eucheuma cottonii or ‘cottonii’) and Eucheuma denticulatum ( Previously E. spinosum or called ‘Spinosum’). ‘Cottonii’ produces 90% kappa-CGN and spinosum is 85% iota-CGN.  These are spiny, bushy seaweeds that grow to about 50 cm high in reef or lagoon regions primarily in the Philippines, Indonesia, and East Africa. These species are farmed in tropical waters with an 8- to 12-week harvest cycle and available year round. Only one CGN type is extracted from each of these two species.

In contrast, cold-water species are harvested annually during the summer months. The primary commercial species includes Chondrus crispus/Gigartina stellata (‘Irish Moss’), which comprise small bushy seaweeds about 10 cm high and widely distributed around the coasts of the North Atlantic ocean, and the much larger Gigartina species harvested off the West Coast of South America (primarily Chile). These wild-harvested seaweeds comprise both haploid and diploid plants which grow together and appear identical. Haploid plants produce kappa-CGN; diploid plants produce lambda-CGN. Consequently, CGN extracted from cold-water species is a mix of kappa-CGN and lambda-CGN in variable ratio depending on the season and location.

All commercial seaweed species are immediately and thoroughly dried to target moisture in the range 18–35% depending on the species and natural salt content from the seawater. The dried seaweeds are baled and shipped to the CGN manufacturing plants which are found in various countries including Indonesia, China, France.

Kappa–Carrageenan = Firm Gel

Kappa-carrageenan yields a strong gel often described as firm and brittle in the presence of potassium ions, and may have syneresis. The kappa structure is a linear polysaccharide with one sulfate group per two galactose molecules and assumes a helical network that is only strengthened with potassium present. Kappa needs to be solubilized in hot water, but the sodium salts of kappa-carrageenan can be soluble in cold water. The resulting gels are not freeze-thaw stable.

Kappa-carrageenan is used in dairy applications with success because it complexes with kappa-casein to form a pourable gel formation. This link allows particles like cocoa (EU) in chocolate milk or whey proteins in other dairy products to remain suspended. In ice cream, the kappa form is used to stabilize air bubbles. In processed cheese , it can be used to reduce the amount of natural cheese without changing manufacturability or finished product texture.

Kappa-carrageenan is also commonly used in meat processing. It enables higher moisture content in meat products like sausages and cooked hams, which results in better yields and improved slicing. In low-fat meat products, using it will result in eating qualities which mimic full fat meat products

Iota–Carrageenan = Elastic Gel

Like kappa, the Iota-carrageenan structure is also a linear polysaccharide which assumes a helical conformation but with two sulfate groups per two galactose molecules. Iota forms a soft elastic gel especially in the presence of calcium ions and the resulting gel strength is ionic strength dependent. Unlike kappa, iota-carrageenan forms gels with freeze-thaw stability and is less likely to undergo syneresis. The iota form is soluble in hot water, and only the sodium salts of iota-carrageenan are soluble in cold water.

Iota-carrageenan gels have the ability to break apart during mechanical action and reform once the mechanical action stops, which is known as thixotropy. This property is helpful in cold-filled products. Within food applications, low usage levels of iota-carrageenan are used to suspend particulates within salad dressings (EU) and other beverages like soy milk (EU). At higher usage levels, iota creates a stronger gel and is used in products like pet foods to create gravy.


William R. Blakemore, in Reference Module in Food Science, Science Direct, 2016


Jill Frank 2015. Carrageenan Deep Dive – Kappa, Iota and Lambda

Where is Pacific Sea Moss Grown

Pacific Sea Moss is grown in the Mindanao area of Philippines. Areas are selected to have water quality and flows directly from the Pacific Ocean and we do not harvest Pacific Sea Moss from areas there is the potential for heavy metal accumulation or pollution.,

Here is the area from Google Maps.

biosea health pacific sea moss location

We make no medical claims. But we all understand seaweed is healthy. What you may not know is that peer-reviewed scientific papers have shown in countless studies on humans, animals and in test tubes that seaweed is healthy. BioSea Health provides seaweed as a simple way to consume food. Simply good healthy food.

Risk of Heavy Metals in Biosea

Seaweeds are really good at sucking up chemicals in the water. Where we grow seaweed we test the water and the seaweed and we do not have detectable levels of lead, cadmium or mercury. We do not ship any product that has more than detectable levels. Why eat to be healthy but then ingest levels of toxic chemicals.

But in some areas and for some species they do concentrate and are used in water remediation. There is seaweed grown in the mouth of the Rhine River to extract out nitrogen, lead, cadmium to reduce the levels going into the North Sea.

Other seaweed is not harvested but washes up on the shore after storms.  In contrast our seaweed is grown in the clean sea (monitored), harvested, dried and put into product.

All with the latest state of the art gate to plate tracking process and formally organically certified.

So be careful of seaweed products is grown in river mouths, or is not carefully monitored.

NB.  Back in 2012,researchers found seaweed (K. alvarezii extract) exhibits potent anti-genotoxicity effects in a fish model; and thus seaweed extracts may be recommended as a supplement in fish meal and may benefit humans ingesting Hg-contaminated fish.

See Nagarani, Nagarajan & Janakidevi, Velmurugan & Yokeshbabu, M & Kumaraguru, Arumugam. (2012). Protective effect of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta) extract against DNA damage induced by mercury chloride in marine fish. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 94. 10.1080/02772248.2012.707792.



What Species is Pacific Sea Moss and its cultivars

What is Pacific Sea Moss?

We use a variety of seaweeds (macroalgae) that grow in the subtropical waters. We currently only use Kappaphycus alvarezii  (often commonly called cottinii and previously called E. cottonii).

There are from 30,000 to 1 million of algae, but for macro-algae, there are at least some 13,000 species. Humans only use about 13 species commercially although there are dozens (>97)  species in the Philippines and there are species not yet identified.  Genetic profiling of seaweeds is only just beginning.
Taxonomists and seaweed researchers typically describe 3 types and include species from the Rhodophyta (red), Phaeophyta (brown) and Chlorophyta (green) families of macroalgae. This is very confusing, except for taxonomists.  E.g. The red seaweeds of Eucheumia and Kappaphycus were only separated into 2 separate genera in 1988.  They exist in a range of morphologies and colours depending on where it grows! Common names exist but these sometimes refer to different species. For example, Elk sea moss is a USA name, guso, kanot-kanot and Tambalang are all common names for K. alvarezii but in some locations the species is actually not that one.

Varieties of Pacific Sea Moss?

Red seaweeds

  • Kappaphycus alvarezii – called cottonii in the Philippines / Indonesia / Malaysia and grown for its kappa-carrageenan content. Prior to 1985 the taxonomic name was Eucheuma cottonii. This is the primary species used in Pacific SeaMoss and also on the “BELFRIT”  list of accepted food seaweeds. The primary carrageenan produced is kappa-carrageenan sulfated polysaccharides.
  • Eucheuma spinosum. The new proper species name is E. denticulatum but most literature still refers to it as E. spinosum or “spinosum”.  It has a wide range of  phentoypes – i.e. some cultivars look like different species, but are genetically probably the same. Called guso in Philippines and generally green in colour but can be brown, red or green in colour. The species is on the approved list in Europe. The list is the “BELFRIT”  list of accepted food seaweeds. (Shortened from Belgium, France and Italy). This species produces iota-carrageenan sulfated polysaccharides.
  • Chondrus crispus is a red seaweed, also called Irish moss and is a common edible red seaweed that can be found on rocky shores in the Northern Atlantic. The cell wall contains carrageenan and C. crispus is the original source of this commercially used thickener.
  • Halymenia (some 70 species)
  • Gracilaria is used as a food in Japanese, Hawaiian, and Filipino cuisine. In Japanese cuisine, it is called ogonori or ogo. In the Philippines, it is called gulaman and used to make gelatin. In Jamaica, it is known as Irish moss. There are many species
  • Dulse (Dulsepalmaria palmata) is a cool water red sea moss and gained media attention as “seaweed bacon”.
  • Gigartina skottsbergii, Irdae or Mazzaella laminarioides species are wild harvested for carrageenan production in Chile (from Concepcion to Chiloe Island).
  • Sarconema filiforme is a red seaweed found in Queensland, Australia, with iota-carrageenan and was used in an obesity experiment.

Green seaweeds

  • Caulerpa lentillifera – sometimes called sea grapes or “Umibudo” in Japan and grown throughout the Pacific.
  • Porphyra or Nori as known from Japan
  • Aonori or green laver (Monostroma spp. and Enteromorpha spp.)
  • Ulva sp or sea lettuce. Sea lettuce is eaten by a number of different sea animals, including manatees and the sea slugs known as sea hares. Many species of sea lettuce are a food source for humans in Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland, China, and Japan (where this food is known as aosa). Sea lettuce as a food for humans is eaten raw in salads and cooked in soups. It is high in protein, soluble dietary fiber, and a variety of vitamins and minerals, especially iron. The issue with sea lettuce is contamination with toxic heavy metals.

Brown seaweeds

  • Sargassum has a number of species, and generally free-floating. Sargassum is not a prime edible but a plentiful one. It can be eaten by itself or added to fish and meat dishes. If not strong it can be added to salads after washing, or it can be cooked in water like a vegetable.
  • Kombu or haidai.  Laminaria is a genus of 31 species of brown algae commonly called “kelp”. Some species are also referred to as tangle. This economically important genus is characterized by long, leathery laminae and relatively large size. Names include bull kelp, giant kelp, and Kombu or haidai in Japan.  It may be a range of species including L. longissima, L. japonica, L. angustata, L. coriacea and L. ochotensis.

We make no medical claims. But we all understand seaweed is healthy. What you may not know is that peer-reviewed scientific papers have shown in countless studies on humans, animals and in test tubes that seaweed is healthy. BioSea Health provides seaweed as a simple way to consume food. Simply good healthy food.

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